автореферат диссертации по филологии, специальность ВАК РФ 10.02.15
диссертация на тему: Correlation of genitive and accusative in the collections of folklore of J.Basanavicius
Полный текст автореферата диссертации по теме "Correlation of genitive and accusative in the collections of folklore of J.Basanavicius"
1 exercise my right to typescript JANINA SVAMBARYT6
CORRELATION OF GENITIVE AND ACCUSATIVE IN THE COLLECTIONS OF FOLK-LORE OF J. BASANAVICIUS
Speciality 10.02.15. — The Baltic languanges
Summary (thesis of candidate of philology)
Tills work has been written at the Department of Lithuanian languanga of the Faculty, of Philology of Vilnius University
Scientific research adviser - Doctor of philology,
profess,jr A. Pirocfclnas
the official, critics: Doctor of philology^......
Doctor of philology proi'cnnor K.I'upcrka
The leading organization - She Pedagogical Institute
Iha thesis will be maintained on the Xb th of ¿Hxc\iQ »992 nt jftf- o'clock at the meeting of the Specialized Coun-oil at 'the Vilnius University,
Place of maintalnanoei Lithuania, 2734 Vilnius, Universl-teto 3, 'acuity of Philology,
■ You can '.nd the thesis at the library of Vi1 îiua Univers ty, (
Sumr-ary was sent on th ^ljtjl&> 1992.
Scientific secretary of the Specialised. Council
Doctor of philology, profesBor^^-^V J.^0ird2ijauekaB
■■ J 4
I _ 'n GSHEHAL CHARACMUSTICS OP TfiCTORK
l.-nncc-,!; ,?^,-.-, I
Much attention has been paid by ir-'estigators of syntax of the iithuanian languange to word combinations. Vol. 3 of the Academical Grammar of the LithuaniSUV l*anguange (V., 1976) mainly focuses its attention oa word combinations too Problematic aspects of word combinations have boen touched upon in the works by B. Kalinauskaa (Syntax of Word Combinations in lithuanian. V,, 1972) and V. Labutis (Problemtic Aspects of Word Combinations, V,, 1976). Several theses of candidate of philology dealt with certain types of word corabi^fltion3 in Standard lithuani^-i, theee are the one by A, flasimaricius (1965), £. Grenda (1968), K. Cgiicauskaf (1958). V't thesis of doctor of philology by L, Valeika j.s worth mentioning here too. A great number of articles on different aspects 'Vf word combinations has been written and published during the last decades.
Studies oi word combinations are important from theoretical point of "view as well as in respect of languange normalization. The later turned up as early as at the end of the 19 th century, when linguists -'ere not yet • concerned with theoretical problems of word combinations. The artiole by J. Jablonskis "i.'cdega sintaksiui", which appeared in the paper "Varpas" in 1893, actually analysed word combinations from the point of-view ot languor*'-'! normalization. Ihis approach towards word combinations was transferred to his later '.'forks on this subject, including his most prominent one "Links., .ai ir prielinksniai" (K., 1928)
example'was followed by young lin^uistB (P. Hctoma, M. Duryo, A. Kfilniuo, P. Klinias, L. ^anbri&n&s), by the magazine "Oimtoji knlba". Thua, studies of the problems of word
combinations (which some times were turned, in different ways) have deep traditions in Lithuanian linguistics.
Iheoretical investigations in word combinations are marked by their own spec Jics and make up a part of general problematics of syntax. Цгге Lithuanian linguists can make иве of syntactic studies of other languanges, In. t.iis aspect J. Jab-lonskis' method is based on the colleetion of data of the Lithuanian languange and their interpretation. It could seem that during the hundred of years since the appearance of the article by J. Jablonakis there should have been collected a lot of data. It's a pity, it isn't eo. Because of the lack, of reliable data eaoe decisions on the use of the caaes seem to lack definitneas (especialLLy what concerns the limits of their usage and providing no explanation on the mechanisms of the use of variants), let's take, for example, a verbal phrase with
'....!. the (Jenitive and the Accusative used synonymously. Sf we presented a verbal phrase which could be used either with the ^enitive or with the Accusative of a part, .here would be a discussion between our linguists on the regularity of the phrase, for they already discussed on the use of the ^Gtive with the infinitive 30 years ago. The problem wasn't solved then, thus, studies of word combinations or tfc»uee of the caaea in theoretical terms and especiu.ly in the terras of langutmge normalization ore atill urgent.
We have с osen one particular problem for ou. thesis -ве a' ed nt analysing verbal phrases which can be used with tie Accusative as well as the ueuitive, comparing the two variants of the phrase in the definite text - the collections Lithuanian narrative follc-l^re coraplled and published by J. ^aeanRvioius.
<h see the following tasJsgi
1. analyse the usage of the Accusative of the object and the Genitive of the whole and of ind^'inite quantity, to definí the choise ■ - j of a case is determined by tje
duration, cnntiinuity and completion of the action expressed by a verb and other criteria.
2. lo diaeusss which of the two cases of an object (the ^Genitive or the Accusative) is given preference when used
with a negative transitive verb and its compound form.
3. To analyse by what means the adverbial modifier of purpose succ%din£, verbs of motion is expressed: by means of the
■ ^enitive or the Accusative with che infinitive (supine), and
how it accounts for the case form of an object.
4. To explain the usage of the Accusative of'a direct object with the gioup of verbs which, according to the standards of modern Lithuanian,. require the Genitive.
The tasks of the thesis: "Correlation of Genitive and
Accusative in the collections of folk-lore of J. "asanavicius", are
enumerated above is closely related to the following alms of our work:
1. To analyse word combinations withe the Genitive or Ik* Accusative used to expresa the whole and indefinite _ .quantity, the adverbial modifi*"'" of purpose, the object with a negative transitive verb and a direct object, and to mnka use of the theories on similar phenomena in Lettish, Russian, Polish and other languages.
To emphasize the st:.ndaril virii'.nt and v .rii'.t'.ona of
a word combination where a verb governs the Genitive and the Accusative, and to motivate the usage of the Accusative and the Genitive aa far as syntactic and semanti c features of the word, actualization and context allow,
3. lo find out whether the standard of the use of the Genitive and the Accusative- in verbal pK: >ses is based on the lan^-ange of folk-lore or on the variants of colloquial lan-guange.
Sources, while dealing with the problems of word combiH nation mentioned above, we based our studies on the collections of narrative folk-lore compiled and published at the end of the 19 th century - beginning of the 20 th century: "Lietuvia-koe pasakou" P. 1 (Shenandoak, Pa., 1892), P. 2 (190/l)i "Lie-tuviSkoa pasakos yvairios" J. \ (Chicago I. U., 1903), P. 2, P. 3 (1904), P. 4 (1905) and "Ib gyvenimo vfeliij bei velni^" (Kaunas, 1328). ¡..ore thwi 7 000 carda with the examples have been.picked out from these 7 books. They make up the basis
of the catalogue of the problems we axe interested in.
The novelty of the work presented is first of all in the attempt to look over the correlativ® use of ie lenitive and the Accusative by means of analysing the examples picked out from '-he authentic texts of narrative fo1'c-lore vihich en-.1 race almost all the dialects of Lithuanian. Till now the Judgement on the^uaaga was based on more or less casually picked out examples. In our case all the conclusions are ma-da on the basis of the material which has been entirely picked out from the sources caooen. It leads to the conclusion, that most of earlier xcconraendationa actually ore not proved
statistically (which doesn't mean at all that we insist on their rejection).
Ehe material obtained and it3 analysis suggest that there exist . certain transitional features which indicate the
closenesa if the usage of the Genitive and the Accusative ¡f<\g. the Genitive of a part / the Genitive and tho Genitive of a direct object and the Genic_ve of purpose).
The study of the problem of the usa of the ^enitive with compound verbal predicate formed by means of the verb "nor6-ti" and the transitive infinitive which hasn't been yet dealt by our linguists should be considered to contribute to the novelty of the ..ork too.
Besides, one should bear.- in mind tiiat our material and its analysis present wider approach to|wards the problem of the cboise of the variant of a word combination by speaker which is determined by many criteria.
The conclusion, that the majority of the cases of the correlative use of the Genitive and the Accusative ctanot be
standardised villi be quite a new one for syntas studies.
Our aspiration to achieve the tasks ond thejains of the work in the most efficient way accounts for the choiso of tha methods of investigation. VJe've cade complex use of the traditional methods in the studies of syntax - descriptive and din-chronical methods: first c ell these are the Grammatical and semantic analysis of the components of constructions and their substitution. In some enso, when wo ff&nt the things to be evident, w» use the statistical method.
Ihf? theoretical ond practical value of the «vork lies in the fact 1» . that the data of Lithuanian of tho end of 19 th century - the becinninc of the 20 th century withe the G'nitlvn
and the Accusative used to express the tuning of the whole and Indefinite quantity, purpose, direct object, an object with a negative transitive verb in verbal phrases, will considerably enlarge the collection of data on the problem.
On the other hand these facts should encourage linguists to make a deeper insight into the problem or the use of the Genitive and the Accusative, and especially into'their motivation of the usage of these cases, when approached from tha point of view of historical syntax and syntax of dialects. Besides, the examples collected will enable linguists to continue the analysis of the use of the Genitive and the Accusative, Abundant ezarapleB will help specialists of languange normalization to foresee variations of tha norm r f case forms in .word comMigp-tions and all the possible changes of the norm.-We hope that our work will encourage linguists to study the relationship of other cases (e.g., the liominative // the Instrumental, the Uati-ve f1 the Accusative, the Accusative // the Instruroental etc.) In the languange.
Ihe thesis has been considered at the meeting of the depart-dentoof Lithuanian languange of Vilnius University in April, 1992.
thesis consists of the foreword, the introduction, 4 parts, the conclusions, the list of literature usea and the list of abbreviations.
COHTEIIÏS OF WE IHESIS
The foreword defines the problem chosen and its urgency, aims of the work, the methods used and the sources us i, discusses the theoretical and practical value of the thesis.
The introduction deals with the basic theoretical matters on word combinations, which serve as a basis f~r the analysis of verbal phrases with a subordinated component expressed by synonymous or almost synonymous Genitives and Accusatives. Here we face the problem of the case government. From the point of view of case government all Lit .anian ver' s are either objective (which require an object/ or non-objective. An object in Lithuanian -can be expressed by almost all the sases! by the Genitive (dalraus puodslio), by the Accusative (stumia stal^), by the Instrumental (kerta kirviu), by the Dative ( tèirui priesto-
raujU). Sometimes a linguistic situation, which can hâve several
expressions, is possible, e. g. : gavo darb$ - darbo; ima pini-gus - pinigij; klausia tévq - tf^o. Ihus, verbal phrases can be analysed from two points of' view: according to the form of subordination of the. word governed and from the point-of view of semantics. While describing word combinations in the first case we stress their morphological 'f.dc, we morphologize syntax in a nay. Then we arc concerned with the case form of a word governed. Such an approval is characteristic of the Ac-vdenieal ^ramriar of the Lithuanian languange ('J7Û) and works of soma scholars (*.
Paula .'kienê, B. Kalinauskas, A. cileckienè and others). It should bo noted, that while analysing word combinations from the point of /lew of different cases, wo leave beyond the limits
of out Investigation similar syntactic constructions, tha syntactic synonym®., for they stand instead of different^ cases and it seems .. . that common points between the cases exist, where two or even more c&lss could be used.
fe can approach word combinations governed by a verbs in a different way, i. e. we can-describe them according to their meaning (e. g. time, quantity etc.). Tor example, almost all the cases can be used in »ford combinations governed by a verb from the point of view of time, e. g.s Daznne vakaras galvcj skauda (Noroihstlve) j ijtojui pasiliko darbo (Dative)j naktj. lijo (Accusative)» parejo pax^ciu (Instrumental)} pumpurai baland^j pra-zysta (locative). We believe this way to classify verbal phrases to be worth-while, for it enables to avoid raorphologiza-
tion of syntax and to reveal syntactic synonyms . expresced by different cases.
In our thesis word combinations governed by verb with a subordinated component expressed by the Genitive and the Accusative are disinguished according to the foliowing meanings: a part t-nd the whole, an object with a neeative transitive verb, purpose ariQ a dixuct object with sone verbs of state and action. The expression of these relations in Btill problematic because of linguistic causes which hasn't been investigated yet as well as ouiside influence on the lancuange. Having chosen one source -the collections of narrative folk-lore compiled by J. Basanavi-ilue, we aimed ..t revealing syntactic synonyms wi . i the Genitive Accusative and expressing our opinion on themi Syntactic variant!» are the main irovinc force of the richness, variety and development of the Ifnjuange. Ihero's one more aspect which en-courftgsd uo to investigate 'hese phenomena - the aspect of nor-calitrtlor,. Ihe theoio shows, how languange norms can bo based on tha lir^uiftic facta of tha end of the 19th century and ths beginning of the 20 th ccntu.-y.
We analyse the examples with verbs that govern Qenitives of indefinite quantity and Accusatives of the whole, picked out from the collections by J. BasamviSius in the first pafct of our thesis.
The ability of verbs to govern the Genitive of indefinite quantity and the Accusative of the whole is characteristic oj.' other languanges as well. The survey of literature on the subject presented indicates, that such phenomena are characteristic of Lettish, Russian, Polish and other Indoeuropean languanges, though government isn't so strong as in Lithuanian there. Actually, government In the languanges mentioned can be viewed aa reliots of the ancient system. Nevertheless, scholars engaged in the studies of those languanges have revealed interesting aspects, which determine the .sage of these cages. It should be mentioned that nobody has succeeded In determinating the relationship between the Genitive of a part and Accusative, though all works on the subject have been of great interest and help for us.
On the basis of the observations of Lithuanian linguists O and scholars engaged in the studies of other languanges the thesis states that tile use of the two cases Is characteristic of only a small p^rt of verbs. "« have the most evident and often cases of the ^enitive of a part with verfcg. of possesion (t^-rSti, gauti, duofci...), with verbs denoting work processes (daryti, nesti, Icepti, virti, sSti...), Cases of the ''enitlve of a part with verbs denoting mental abilities (raoj^i, iUn&tl), certain 3tate (nor^ti, trr'jti) nnd verbs having other mannings Cpnn oti, zndfeti) are rarft.
Though in the folk-lore collections by J. iinsnnavioiun cnr.eo of the cont'lni tlons th the verbs mentioned the Acciifnti-
re of the whole Instead of the Genitive of a part Is very often. some causes account for the use of thitr form. first of all, an object is express by means of the Genitive of abstract nouns, which indicate, that it ia understood as the whole, e. g.s kad turi nor^i aikj rasioi kur darb^f g--vo ten duonqj gavo laIvEl, turi dz^laugfiffi^f davé maia_tij.
She casa of an object expraesed by means of concrete nouns depends on the intention of a person to define either part or the whole. In the first case Genitive is used, in the second - Accusative. But it doesn't depend on subjective causes only, i»uch depends on the tense of a verb. In the case of continuity of an action our sources tend to suggest Accusative», in the case of a single completed action - Genitive, The • . completion of an action can be expressed by morphological means, namely by means of prefixes pa-, pjar-, at-, au-, nu-, iS-, Some examples; pirko grazias drapanaa - nusipirko graziij drabu-ZI4; xado plnigus - atrado pi^iign,' séjo pu£as - paaèjo avi2tj; rirdavo daoras; kepdavo Mauainienj - privirk mésos, iskepk ski? 1 >>' meta plnigus ant ziburio - numesiu zuvi}, pavirisio at-
Sometimes the completion of an action isn't expressed by morphological means. In such cases the context imp? es it, e. g.i Xietuvininkai mirusiajsm tlk kurpea ir StriuinjtsfpirKavo -- nuo aavo dre z4 uz treciok% Jknyjjji^ pirkdavoj jr'-ju tik rasma pini -us, tai tiek anas mum regés - diedas uzdraude savo bobai, kad niekam neoakytn, kad [jinigii rado$ akini/.kai turèâavo alt-■rarus - dukter|( lurèjoj eodina zolynus - eodinjs bulviiu nesa grCdua - noeè dovannj géré vleoklus gftrii.-.ue - v^no gérêj verda kO££etus - kukull\j verdii) ragavo vnialua - raguujn lacinln.
Che Genitive of indefinite quantity often is subntituted by Accusative *ith attributes in the oe>.hniucu . * shoving that
person, knows the quantity of an object, e. g. i duos didellua skarbuB| Zyatus mafflkin^lius atneadavo( tas zoles rasij didellua gjrlmus lr valglus atnesSj Ima tjoos^bl^nus| gavo nora siokius toklus lopua.
■Examples with the Accusative and the Genitive , expressing the whole and indefinite quantity in the oompound verbjijjonst-ructions are discussed at the end of the l^t part of the work, e. g.s norijo pirkti audlnlu - norfejo duonat§ valgytij ¿mi neat skrjlius r klaualnions - pradSJo Jduoti vlaoklH aliej^ ir zo-liiil turi rugiua pasit - turiu pagaut 2uvn.
Means of expression of the whole and indefinite quantity depend upon many criteria ar.d especially on the duration, con-ti: uity and completion of the action expressed by a verb.
Part 2, It is well-known, that in Standard Lithuanian negative transitive verb requires the Genitibe instead of the Accusative, thus, this part of the thesis is concerned with«." the problem of the usage of the Genitive of negation in the collections of narrative folk-lore by J. ^asanavicius. Besides, the interchange of the two csseii in such position isn't specific to the Lithuanian languanga only, though there are very few studies on the problem in other lanjuanges, except Tor the Buselan languange. 2>ns, wo had to rely on Lithuanian material only.
First of all, the thesis discusses the usage of Genitives, and Accusatives with negative forms of cransitive verba - both finite and infinite. Iher^' are more than seven hundreds of examples of this kind with Accusative and onlj seventy with Genitive in the collections of folk-lore by J. ^as.'inaviSiuo. The statistical data are not exact, though they are evident and convincing enough to state that constructions of Genitiv« with negative transitive verbs dominate.
In case that the choise of the caso could be duterminated
by the position of a case form with respect to a verb, we discussed the constructions of this kind according to the place of f_case form which can precede or succeed a verb. First of all we discuss the usage of the Genitive and the Accusative proceeding negation,, e. g.s podukra nekentdj vyr^ neleidoj t6vus nepe-
darbp neturdjo. Aocusative of an object preceeding negotiation prevails. made special study of the examples with the Accusative and the Genitive succeeding negative verb, e. g.s negavo zlni%; neisvirel pi_etuaj nemusk jautj.; nepaimsi aitij. pi-nig^. It should be mentioned, that Accusative is preferential In such cases.
Sometimes words or even sentences can be interposed
between Accusative or '"enltive of e. subordinated word and the verb, e. g. : kitq kunlgq to.1e piriq.le nesulauksimj salnq vfel ne-parnesei; Sitq prastq zmogu apdrlskuot, ana kur vaziuoja in
girl<i, n^lesusaldysi. V/e discussed such cases separately, emphasizing the tendency to use Accusative.
Also we found sentences with words between a verb and the
Genitive or the Accusative, e. g.s netenka taDvargaas skatilPi; nerandu cia sau jaunikij neturi ant_Jco^ij. tas karpa3. The Accusative prevails in this position too.
V/e devoted special part of the thesis to the cases of the Accusative or the Genitive with a compound verbal predicate. Scholars are not unanimous about the usage of the cases in such combinations in Standard Lithuanian. J. Jablonskis and his successors insicted upon the usage of the Genitive with a negative compound ver> 1 predicate and transitive infinitive. Though "K'llbon p. ;:tllcos pa tnrirnal" (2 nl. ed., p. 7B), having taken into account the or-'nions of different linguists, states that both vr.rinnts fire possible in ouch situation.
'ihe examples of nuch a type, picked out from the faity tales of J, ^armavicius, were also analysed according to the
tion Is expressed by the Genitive or the Accusative with the infinitive (supine), it appeared that there were over 500 examples with the Accusative and over 200 examples withi; the Genitive.
At the end of the Part 3 we conclude that in our sources the adverbial, modifier of purpose is a expressed not only by means of the Genitive, but by the Accusative with the infinitive (supine) too.
In Part 4 of our thesis we aimed at finding out how objects expressed by the Genitive and the Accusative and directly governed by the same verb are used synonymously.
First of all, the typical verbs, which require the Genitive, and denote a csrf^tjin state (laukti, sulaukti) are discussed . The thesis presents a lot of examples where the verbs mentioned are used with the Genitive, as well as with the Accusative, o. g.: 1иикё krik3to t6vq> sulaukS patogiq^dukterj.
A special study la made of the verbs of action prasytl, melsti, reikalauti, klausinStl, klauati.
The action expressed by these verbs can be directed to a cer&y.n person or things representing aim (they are usually expressed by nouns or pronouns). Standard Lithuanian recommends the Accusative in such cases (ргазё tftvq, and in Russian prosit1 u otca), though the Genitive is tolerated too (ргаЗё t6vo, kad leist-ц pirkti arkl}.). The examples 'idicate that in most cases in the collections by J. Basanavicius the Accusative is used, e. g.i klausin^ja dvari£kiusj meldd 1д_2топси klausft bobfii ргаоё sener}.. In general, it should be mentioned, that preference is given to the Accusative in moot cases and the Ce-nitive i3 very rare.
The папе verbs denote an action directed to an object de.ilred by n oubjeot. Standtirl Lithuanian suggests the Genitive
here, though there are some examples with the Accusative in the folk-lore collections, e. g. : buck}. prasSf meldS ziedjj prases puok^i kunigq reikalavo. Part 4 ends with the conclusion that certain verbs of state and acti n., according to Standard Lithuanian, require the Genitive, though in the collections by J. i,a -anavioius the Accusative is given preference in such case3.
In the end of the thesis followity conclusions are presented:
I. In the collections of narrative folk-lore of the end of the 19 th centur y - the beginniu^ of the 20. th •• century, compiled and published b;r J. Basanavicius, a pert and the whole with certain verbs of possesion, excange,,work processes; mental activities and others are expressed by the Genitive of indefinite quantity as well as by the Accusative.
1. When an object is expressed by an abstract, noun only the Accusative is possible. !he Accusative t emphasizes the integrity of an action.
2. Ihe case of object in verbal phrases expressed by concrete nouns or pronouns depends not only on the meaning of di- © visibility of a subordinated word, its category of number, but on the category of aspect of a verbj there's a tendency to use the Accusative when a verb expresses action'in continuity, and the Genitive of indefinite quantity is preferred when a verb expresses a single, completed action, when indicated by morphological means (prefixes) or having no morphological expression.
3. In some cases the Genitive of indefinite quantity can be replaced by the Accusative with an attribute which indicates that a spea' r knows the quantity of an object discussed.
4. Indefinite quantity and the whole with a compound verbal predicate with a n.od'.l or phusal link verb expressed much like with a ninple form of a predicate, though there are c'iflcs when the infinitive requires the Acnurative.
5. The case Ton, of mi objcct of compound verba 1 . -iii^nt"-
with the link: verb "norSti" and its synonyms trckati, geistl can be determined by the link verb norSti. Then it is expressed by the Genitive. It can depend on the infinitive which requires the Accusative.
II. In the collections of folk-lore the Accusative of .an object
with a negative transitive verb or its compound form is used
most often. The "relationship of the Accusative and the genitive
in the examples is 100 i 1. The Accusative prevails
in pre and post position with the regard to a verb, and when
there's no close relationship between''case form and a verb (with word! and even sentences in between the two elements).
In all cases with a negative compound verbal predicate the Accusative prevails. It is used in all the positions (pre, poet and inter positions).
III. The adverbial modifier of purpose succeediiyverbs of mr '-ion is expressed by the Genitive of an object as well as by the Accusative with the infinitive (supine). 4
1. irom the collecions of folk-lore by J. BasanaviSius one can judge that the practice of expressing purpose by means of the Accusative succeeding verbs of motion is due to the rule formulations by J. Jablonskis: If the single Genitive in post position with verbs of motion isn't possible, the Accusative with the infinitive (supine) la uaed. Such examples can be found in the areas of Uznemund, Uazoji T.ietuva, in Blrzai, 3lsu-11a1, Kidainiai, Zarasal regions.
itf. Certain verbs of state known to govern the Genitive of an object have been found with the Accusative In the collections of folk-lore,
V. Verbs of action which io directed to a person or a thir.g are used only with the Accusative in the collections of folklore, and an object which denotes wish, desire can bo expresso''
by the Genitive as well as the Accusative.
Cera&in ideas of the thesis are reflected in tb,e following publications:
1. Kaip reiékiame neapibrégt^ kiekt in visumq. - ttiratojl knlba. - 1998. H. 3. P. 18-19.
2. Papildinysj neapibrézto klekio kilmininkas ar gallnin-kas? - 3ciltistica. 1992 (to be published).
3. Heapibréztc kiefcio ir visumos raiSka kalboje. - Dialogal. 1992 (to be published).